LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY

Losnummer: 845
Share, unissued. black. Heavy folds, repaired top left border and some brown staining. The fine decorative certificate shows Britannia, with goods and passenger trains travelling in both directions between the Liverpool Exchange and the Manchester Exchange, and has a red seal. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway (L&MR) was the world's first inter-city passenger railway in which all the trains were timetabled and were hauled for most of the distance solely by steam locomotives. The line opened on 15 September 1830 and ran between the cities of Liverpool and Manchester in North West England. The L&MR was intended to achieve cheap transport of raw materials and finished goods between the Port of Liverpool, and east Lancashire. Huge tonnages of textile raw material wereimported through Liverpool and carried to the textile mills near the Pennines where water and then steam power enabled the production of the finished cloth. The existing means of water transport, the Mersey and Irwell Navigation and the Bridgewater Canal, dated from the previous century, and were felt to be making excessive profits from the existing trade and holding back the growth of Manchester and other towns. There was support for the railway from the cities at either end, but opposition fromthe landowners over whose land the railway was proposed to pass. The original promoters are usually acknowledged to be Joseph Sandars, a rich Liverpool corn merchant, and John Kennedy, then owner of the largest spinning mill in Manchester. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway Company was founded on 24 May 1823. It was established by Henry Booth, along with other merchants from Liverpool and Manchester. A bill presented to Parliament was passed in 1826. The capital was £510,000, in 5100 shares of £100 each, although only 4233 had been sold (to 308 shareholders) when the Act was presented to Parliament; doubtless the rest were sold later. In Liverpool 172 people took 1979 shares, in London 96 took 844, Manchester 15 with 124, 24 otherswith 286. Various calls were made on the shares during the construction period. 1829 saw a rights issue, for acquisition of wagons, warehouses, depots and carriages, in 5100 shares of £25; those certificates are, unlike the first one which we offer here, undecorated (see next lot). Further shares were issued later, (for different purposes of expansion, but including branches to Wigan and St.Helens). The sequential serial numbers indicate that over 32.000 shares were issued by the L&MR, although very few have been seen by collectors; doubtless most were destroyed later. The company obtained a loan of £100.000 from the government. In 1824 George Stephenson was appointed engineer. The 35 miles (56 km) line was a remarkable engineering achievement for its time. Not least was the famous 4.75 miles (7.6 km) crossing of Chat Moss. Having found it impossible to drain the bog, Stephenson began constructing a large number of wooden and heather hurdles, which were sunk into the bog using stones and earth until they could provide a solid foundation - it was reported that at one point tipping went on solidly for weeks until such a foundation had been created. To this day the track across Chat Moss floats on the hurdles that Stephenson's men laid and if one stands near the lineside one can feel the ground move as a train passes. However, the line now supports locomotives 25 times the weight of the Rocket, which pulled the first experimental train over the Moss in January 1830. The railway needed 64 bridges and viaducts, almost all of which were built of brick or masonry. In 1829 locomotives had not proved particularly reliable. The experience on the Stockton and Darlington Railway was well-publicised, the success of cable-haulage was indisputable, while the steam locomotive was still untried. The L&MR had sought to avoid talk of the use of steam locomotives during the passage of the bill, the public having become alarmed at the idea of these monstrous machines which, if they did not explode, would fill the countryside with noxious fumes. Moreover, attention was turning towards steam road carriages. There was a division in the L&MR board between those who supported Stephenson's "loco-motive" and those who favoured cable haulage. Stephenson was not averse to cable haulage - he continued to build such lines where he felt it appropriate - but knew its main disadvantage, that any breakdown anywhere would paralyse the whole line. The line was built to standard gauge and double track. Firstly, there was no convenient means of operating the line as single track as the line predated the telegraph. Secondly, the amount of traffic was expected to require double track. Stephenson's 'Rocket' won the famousRainhill locomotive trials in 1829, and the way was clear. The line opened on 15 September 1830 with termini at Manchester and Liverpool. The festivities of the opening day were marred when William Huskisson, the popular Member of Parliament for Liverpool, seized the opportunity of a temporary halt at Parkside near Newton-le-Willows to alight and talk to the Duke of Wellington, then Prime Minister, through the Duke's carriage window. Standing on the permanent way, he misjudged the speed of theapproaching Rocket and was run over, becoming the world's first railway passenger fatality. The somewhat subdued party proceeded to Manchester, where, th Duke being deeply unpopular with the labouring classes, they were given a lively reception (bricks thrown, etc), and returned to Liverpool. In spite of this unfortunate start to its career, the L&MR was very successful. The effect on the area served by the line was extraordinary, with new businesses opening and reduced costs for existing businesses (although the canals and turnpikes suffered a serious loss of business). Within a few weeks of opening it ran its first excursion trains, carried the first railway mails in the world, and was conveying road-rail containers; by the summer of 1831 it was carrying tens of thousands by special trains to Newton Races. Although the Act had allowed for it to be used by private carriers paying a toll, from the start the company decided to own and operate the trains itself. The line did not start carrying goods until December, when the first of some more powerful engines, Planet, was delivered. What was not expected was the line's success in carrying passengers. Experience showed that unprecedented speed could be achieved. The train was also cheaper and more comfortable than travel by road. So, at first, the company concentrated on passenger travel, a decision that had repercussions across the country and triggered the "railway mania". Initially trains travelled at 17 miles per hour (27 km/h), due the limitations of the track. In 1844 an extension to the new Manchester Victoria station was opened. Being one of the first railways, many lessons had to be learnt from experience. The L&MR developed the practice of red signals for stop, green for caution and white for clear, which spread by the early 1840s to other railways in Britain and the United States. These colours later changed to the more familiar red, yellow and green. The L&MR was also responsible for the gauge of 4 ft 8« in(1,435 mm), which came to be used more or less universally. In 1845 the L&MR was absorbed by its principal business partner, the Grand Junction Railway (GJR); the following year the GJR formed part of the London and North Western Railway. The original Liverpool and Manchester line still operates as a secondary line between the two cities. The L&M, after opening, quickly became famous in many countries in Europe and beyond, with many newspaper articles, books and engravings, and its example, with operational and financial success, gave inspiration to build many other lines around the world. Only a handful of issued pieces are known, and fetch very high prices, e.g. last seen and auctioned by us in 2013, fetching 17.000 EUR. This unissued example, the first we have ever encountered, presents an excellent alternative.
Branchen: RAILROADS
GREAT BRITAIN
Datum: 1826
Erhaltung: F
Startpreis: € 7000